In Zoroastrian Middle Persian (Pahlavi) texts, the term xwēdōdah (Av.xᵛaētuuadaθa, khevtuk-das) is said to refer to marital unions of father and daughter, mother and son, or brother and sister (next-of-kin or close-kin marriage, nuclear family incest), and to be one of the most pious actions possible. The models for these unions were found in the Zoroastrian cosmogony. Men were allowed to marry their daughters, sisters, and mother. It was “not merely tolerated, but indeed regarded as acts of piety and great merit, and even efficacious against the demonic forces.” The religious leaders of the time promoted marriage within the family, claiming it imitated the creation. Moreover, priests claimed that incestuous marriage “produced stronger males, more virtuous females, and higher quality and quantity of children, and it protected the purity of the race and propagated it.” This was met by much resistance, led to more conversions from Zoroastrians to Christianity, and is thought to have led to the downfall of the Zoroastrian religion. Finally, The number of wives a man had, was reliant on the means of the man. Thus, there wasn’t as much polygamy in the lower classes as in the wealthy class because men could not afford it.