Their Persian Evolution:
The Khurramites (Persian: خُرّمدينان – Khorrām-Dīnān Persian for “those of the Joyful Religion”; Arabic: خُرَّمية Khurrāmīyah) were an Iranian religious and political movement with its roots in the movement founded by Mazdak (Majoosi/Zoroastrian sect!)] An alternative name for the movement is the Muḥammira Arabic: محمرة “Red-Wearing Ones” (alternativelyPersian: سرخجامگان Surxjāmagān), a reference to their symbolic red dress.
Origins and History
The sect was founded by the Persian cleric Sunpadh and was a revitalization of an earlier sect that had mixed Shī‘a Islam and Zoroastrianism; however, its true claim to fame was its adoption by Bābak Khorramdin as a basis for rebelling against the Abbasid Caliphate.
The sect grew out of a response to the execution of Abu Muslim by the Abbasids, and denied that he had died, rather claiming that he would return as the messiah. This message was further confirmed by the appearance of a prophet named al-Muqanna‘ “The Veiled”, who claimed that the spirit of God had existed in Muhammad, ‘Alī and Abu Muslim.
Under the leadership of Bābak, the Khorammites proclaimed the breakup and redistribution of all the great estates and the end to despotic foreign rule. In 816 they began making attacks on Muslimforces in Iran and Iraq. The Abbasid Caliph al-Ma’mun sent four armies to deal with the problem, but they were defeated each time with Byzantine support.
Al-Maqdisi mentions several facts. He observes that “the basis of their doctrine is belief in light and darkness“; more specifically, “the principle of the universe is Light, of which a part has been effaced and has turned into Darkness”. They “avoid carefully the shedding of blood, except when they raise the banner of revolt”. They are “extremely concerned with cleanliness and purification, and with approaching people with kindness and beneficience”. Some of them “believed in free sex, provided that the women agreed to it, and also in the freedom of enjoying all pleasures and of satisfying one’s inclinations so long as this does not entail any harm to others” [like Rafidi belief of Mot’ah] (their name is most frequently derived from the Persian word khurram “happy, cheerful”). Regarding the variety of faiths, they believe that “the prophets, despite the difference of their laws and their religions, do not constitute but a single spirit”. Naubakhti states that they also believe in reincarnation(metempsychosis) as the only existing kind of afterlife and retribution and in the cancellation of all religious prescriptions and obligations. [like Rafidi belief of Raj’ah]They highly revere Abu Muslim and their imams. In their rituals, which are rather simple, they “seek the greatest sacramental effect from wine and drinks”. As a whole, they were estimated by Al-Maqdisi as “Mazdaeans … who cover themselves under the guise of Islam”. [EXACTLY what Rafidah Safawi 12er Shi’ism is!]
The sect would continue to attract followers until the sixteenth century when the Safavids took control of Sunni Persia. According to Turkish scholar Abdülbaki Gölpinarli, the Qizilbash (“Red-Heads”) of the 16th century – a religious and political movement in Azerbaijan that helped to establish the Safavid dynasty – were “spiritual descendants of the Khurramites”.